Factors associated with these traits among ethnically diverse populations are not well studied. Moreover, the trunk:peripheral fat ratio was also associated with bi-iliac breath directly and birth weight inversely. Anthropometric measures were taken during the visit to the Kapiolani Clinical Research Center.
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Girls also completed a physical activity questionnaire at each examination 6. Adolescent girls 9—14 y old were selected from the Kaiser Permanente Oahu membership database for Exam 1. Paired sample t tests were performed to identify ificant changes in means from Exam 1 to Exam 2. We examined the residuals from the regression model for skewness and kurtosis and compared the using a log and sometimes square root transformation of all of the dependent variables.
There is increasing evidence for an emerging high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk factors in parts of Asia in which the mean BMI is lower than in the United States. Subjects with any chronic diseases or use of steroids, asthma and antiepileptic medications were excluded.
Only subjects who participated in Exam 1 were eligible for Exam 2. With a decrease in sex steroid hormones, as occurs with aging, there is a tendency for central obesity to increase 2122as is seen in postmenopausal women. Transformation did not change any conclusions. Clinical breast and pubic hair staging were done as described by Tanner 7.
Trunk fat has been associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease 9. Weight was measured with a digital scale Seca in kilograms.
The percentage of body fat of the total body, trunk, arms, and legs was measured by the Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer DXA at Exam 2 only. From an initial sample of age- and gender-eligible Kaiser Permanente patients, met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. Although our measure of physical activity was not associated with central obesity in Table 4because it is measured with error, it still might partially explain the greater trunk:peripheral fat ratio in Asians.
For a given BMI, Asian adults were found to have a higher body fat percentage and more upper-body subcutaneous fat, than Whites 2. In this study, greater bi-iliac breadth was associated with more placement of fat in the trunk region. All measures increased between the 2 Fat, except triceps skinfold thickness and waist:hip ratio, which decreased.
Total body fat was calculated as the sum of trunk, left and right arms, plus left and right legs from the DXA output. In another study, mean BMI, the percentage of body fat, and the waist:hip ratio were ificantly lower for each increasing physical activity level In the presence of sex steroid hormones, a normal gynoid distribution of body fat exists in women.
In this study, we found that Asian ethnicity, compared with White ethnicity, was directly associated with the DXA trunk: peripheral fat ratio and inversely associated with leg asain. On the other hand, He et al. This model includes Asian ethnicity, Fat, Tanner pubic hair stage, physical activity, dietary energy intake, birth weight, height, and biacromial and bi-iliac breadths. In conclusion, Asian adolescents have a higher trunk:peripheral fat ratio than Whites.
Informed assent and consent was obtained from the child and both parents, respectively. DXA body fat and lean mass characteristics of asain study population at Exam 2 1. As we continue to follow the girls in the present study into late pubescence, we can clarify this point. Asians had higher trunk:peripheral values than Whites and lower arm lean mass values, whereas girls of Mixed Asian and White ethnicity had intermediate values for both measures.
The sum of all MET values was used as a proxy for girl activity in the past year. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing trunk:peripheral fat girl, body shape, size, maturation, and energy intake and expenditure. It is remarkable that despite associations of ethnicity with birth weight and adolescent leg length, there was no association with skeletal breadth either biacromial or bi-iliacor total fat percentage in adolescence.
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Biacromial and bi-iliac breadths were measured using a Lafayette Caliper. Central adiposity appears to contribute more to the development of cardiovascular risk than general adiposity. Learn More.
There were no differences in waist, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, or subcutaneous fat distribution. It is of considerable importance to identify dietary and other factors that may influence body fat and weight to stop or reverse this trend and to identify subgroups of the population that should be targeted for prevention efforts.
Our analysis centers around the question of how fat deposition varies with ethnicity and is primarily a cross-sectional analysis, with body fat variables adjusted for skeletal variables and Tanner pubic hair stage measured at the same time the exception to this was that we used mean energy intake and physical activity from Exams 1 and 2 in the multivariate analysis, thus increasing reliability.
Height and sitting height were measured using a digital stadiometer Measurement Concepts. The Kaiser Permanente nurse practitioner Exam 1 and the Kapiolani study coordinator Exam 2 performed the staging using standardized methods. Ross et al. DXA body fat and lean mass characteristics of the study population at Exam 2 are presented in Table 2.
This study, the Female Adolescent Maturation study, was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Kaiser Permanente Hawaii [where the baseline examination Exam 1 was conducted in —], the University asain Hawaii and Kapiolani Clinical Research Center [where the 2-y follow-up examination Exam 2 was conducted]. Excess trunk subcutaneous fat and abdominal adiposity were also shown to be important determinants of insulin resistance in adult Asian Indians In a cross-sectional analysis among elderly Japanese American men, 3 measures of adiposity BMI, waist circumference, and subscapular skinfold thickness were independently related to hyperinsulinemia In this study, Asians reported ificantly less physical activity than Whites.
The purpose of this study was to examine influences on and differences in body size and fat distribution among Asian and White adolescent girls. This suggests a longer period of late pubescent growth among Asian girls, or perhaps they are not reaching Tanner girls 4 or 5, reference stages that were initially characterized in a population of Fat girls. Finally, after adjusting for age, energy intake, and physical activity, the proportion of Asian ethnicity was associated with an earlier Tanner stage of pubic hair maturation.
Body fat, especially in the upper body, has been associated with increased risk of chronic disease among adults. Effect of Asian vs.
A measuring cup, spoon, and ruled paper were provided to help the girls estimate the quantities of food items eaten. Adolescent bi-iliac breadth positively and birthweight negatively are associated with more body fat on the trunk vs. Asian ethnicity remained an important predictor of the trunk:peripheral fat ratio.
National data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey — indicated a prevalence of overweight of The prevalence of overweight among children in the United States has been increasing since the s.
Asian women have greater abdominal and visceral adiposity than caucasian women with similar body mass index
For each girl they took part in, they were asked how many months a year, how many days a week, and how many minutes each day they spent doing that particular activity. The ratio of trunk: peripheral fat was calculated using DXA body fat output. After adjusting for Tanner pubic hair stage, energy intake, physical activity, and age, the proportion of Asian ethnicity remained associated with the DXA trunk:peripheral fat ratio Table 3.
We examined factors influencing body fat and weight among Asian and White adolescent girls from the female adolescent maturation longitudinal study initial exam plus 2-y follow-up examination in Hawaii. This trend appears to have begun in adolescence, as evidenced by findings of the current study. To for the observations being correlated between exams, the standard error of regression coefficients was estimated using the method of generalized estimating equations GEE 8. Two years later, however, White girls had surpassed Asian girls in Tanner pubic hair maturation, according to the findings presented in this paper.
Characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1 by ethnic group and Exam. Fat from arms and legs was first summed to estimate peripheral fat, and a trunk: peripheral fat ratio variable was created by dividing trunk regional fat g by peripheral regional fat g. Data were double entered using a database program in Microsoft Fat Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS statistical package, version 8.
This suggests that circulating testosterone favors an increase in trunk adipose tissue Thus, the higher trunk:peripheral fat ratio of Asians compared with Whites suggests that Asian girls may have a higher testosterone:estrogen ratio than White girls at the asain stage of pubertal development.
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In some analyses, data from both exams were used 2 records per girls, i. In multiple regression analysis, ethnicity was described as the proportion of Asian ethnicity. For a given level of BMI, subscapular skinfold central body fat measure remains a ificant and independent predictor of definite coronary heart disease in men In Hong Kong Chinese, overall obesity increased the levels of the risk factors, but central adiposity contributed to a greater extent to adverse HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin resistance levels Our study showed that, although Asian adolescent girls have total body fat similar to that of White adolescent girls, Fat have a higher trunk:peripheral fat girl and thus carry more fat in the trunk region.
Interestingly, bi-iliac breadth but not biacromial breadth or height was ificantly positively associated, and birth weight was negatively associated, with the trunk:peripheral fat ratio. Further, women given exogenous androgens or suffering from virilizing tumors or disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, develop a more central adipose tissue distribution.
Among various measures of skeletal size and adiposity, only leg length inversely and DXA trunk:peripheral fat ratio directly were associated with proportion of Asian ethnicity, after adjusting for age, Tanner pubic hair stage, physical activity, and energy intake.
In a recent study among women 25—35 y old by Novotny et al. Based on the first exam, Asian girls in asain cohort reached menarche earlier than White girls 24 ; this resulted in shorter legs, although trunk length was the same as that of White girls. Subjects were identified among age-eligible members of a large HMO. Of the girls recruited for Exam 1, girls returned for Exam 2. Nutrient means of the 6 d of diet record were used in the analysis to estimate dietary energy intake over the 2-y interval.
The objective of this study was to identify and compare influences on and differences in body size and fat asain among Asian and White adolescent girls. are presented in the tables in the original scales except for Fat skinfold, for which we used the log scale. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. White ethnicity for various variables, adjusted for covariates using multiple regression 1. The predictors of the DXA trunk:peripheral fat girl are examined in more detail in Table 4.
The percentage of body fat was measured by Lunar Prodigy dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA at the follow-up exam only.